Animal World


Leopards are powerful wild cats that have long tails, large heads, and strong muscular bodies. They have a light, the tawny yellow coat that is covered with spots. Leopards are capable of running at the speed of 64km/h and can leap more than six meters horizontally, and three meters vertically. Leopards are also very powerful swimmers. They are found in sub-Saharan Africa., Central Asia, India, and China. Leopards feed on gazelles, antelopes, deer, pigs, hare...etc.

Snow Leopard

The snow leopard is one of the most beautiful wild cats. It is medium-sized and has a very long tail. It has a thick, get a coat with ringed black spots. It has short legs and broad paws that act as snowshoes. Snow leopards feed on sheep, goats, rodents, and hares. Snow leopards are mainly found in the mountains of central and southern Asia.


The panther is the fastest land animal in the world. It has long legs, a lean body, and special footpads. Its yellow-brown coat is covered with small, round black spots. Panthers have black tears marked that run down the corner of their eye to the mouth, Panthers live in the open plains and grasslands of Africa. They feed on antelopes, hares, small mammals, and birds. The tear marks protect the cheetah's fae from the sun's glare.


The lion is one of the largest wild cats. It has a yellow-brownish skin coat. The neck of the male lion is covered with the mane. Lions have a muscular body, sharp claws, strong jaws, and excellent eyesight that help them locate and hunt their prey. Lions feed on antelopes, zebras, and other wild beasts. Lions inhabit the grasslands of sub-Saharan Africa and parts of India in Asia. Lions live in groups known as pride.

African Lion

African Lions are about 1.4 to 2 meters long, excluding the tail. Their tail is about 67 to 100 centimeters long. They weigh about 120 to 191 kilograms. They have a yellow-colored mane. They inhabit grasslands, savannas, and semi-deserts, and are found throughout Africa. They hunt zebras, buffaloes, giraffes, and young elephants for their food. Their pride usually consists of about 3 to 30 lions. A male lion's roar can be heard from as far as eight kilometers.

Bengal Tiger

Bengal Tiger is the second largest subspecies of the tiger. Bengal tigers inhabit forests, marshlands, and grasslands of India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and Burma. Its body is reddish-orange with narrow black stripes in a vertical direction. They feed on medium to large prey including pigs, deer, antelopes, and buffaloes. Bengal tigers are sometimes called Indian tigers. 


Gibbons are lesser apes and look like monkeys. Their flexible and slender bodies make them good climbers. Gibbons are found in rainforests and seasonal forests of India and China. Gibbons have fluffy, dense hair. 

Great Apes

Gorilla, orangutan, common chimpanzee, and bonobo (or pygmy chimpanzees) are the four great apes. All male great apes are larger and stronger than females. The great apes are mainly found in dense tropical forests of Africa. Orangutans are the second-largest great apes. They are known for making notable and recognizing calls. Baboons use at least ten different and unique vocalizations to communicate with their troop members. 


Gorillas are the largest of all apes. Their huge shoulders, broad chest, and shiny black face are the distinguishing characteristics. There are three species of gorillas, the western lowland gorilla, the eastern lowland gorilla, and the mountain gorilla. Gorillas have hair all over their body, except for the faces, palms, and soles of their feet. 


Chimpanzees are intelligent apes. They can easily communicate with their group members, just like humans, using a variety of gestures and facial expressions. Chimpanzees are different from other animals because of their unique walking style. They walk on the soles of their feet and knuckles of their hands. Chimpanzees are famous for using tools. They often the branch of leaves to poke in an ant or terminate the hill to get the insects inside.

Monkey Troops

Monkeys are playful and brainy animals. Groups of monkeys are known as troops in which they travel together to find food. Baby monkeys love to spend most of their time playing, which develops their physical and social ability. Their mothers keep their eyes on the babies and grab their tails if they go too far. Monkeys are found in forests of South and Central America, Africa, and South Asia. 

Spider Monkeys

Spider monkeys are quick and social animals found in the tropical rain forests of Central and South America. Though they do not have thumbs, they can easily maintain a powerful grip on branches. Young spider monkeys totally depend on their mothers for about ten weeks. For the first year of their lives, mothers do not leave them alone and carry them on their backs.

Old World and New World

Monkeys are of old world and new world. Old world monkeys have their nostrils closer together, while New World monkeys have a broad and flat nose, with their nostrils far apart. Old world monkeys have a non-prehensile tail whereas most of the new world monkeys have a prehensile tail. Old world monkeys are found in Africa and Asia. New world monkeys are found in South America. Old-world monkeys - Japanese macaque, rhesus macaque, hanuman langur, and black colobus monkey are some examples of old-world monkeys.

New world monkeys - Spider monkey, squirrel monkey, lion tamarin, owl monkey, and saki monkey are some examples of new world monkeys. 

What are Marsupials?

Marsupials are pouched mammals. The young ones of marsupials are born in an immature state. The mother carries their underdeveloped babies in the pouch. The pouch acts as an external womb for the baby where it undergoes its complete development. Marsupials include animals like kangaroos, opossums, and koalas. A marsupial's pouch is called marsupium. Large flesh-eating marsupials are called Qualls or marsupial cats. 

Physical Features of Marsupials

The body of marsupials is covered with hair. They have short forelimbs and long hind legs that help them in hopping. They have a large face and a small, narrow brain. They have 40 to 50 teeth.


The koala is a small bear-like, tree-dwelling, herbivorous marsupial. Its body is covered with thick, grey fur. Koalas dwell on the eucalyptus trees and feed on eucalyptus leaves. Koalas are great tree climbers. A koala has two thumbs on its hands, and the ridged skin on the bottom of its feet gives it traction for climbing. Koalas have strong sharp claws on their hands and feet that help them in climbing. 


Wombats are large burrowing marsupials found only in Australia. They have a large head, a short, muscular neck, and stubby legs. Wombats live in burrows that they dig using their long claws. They can even dig in the hardest of soil. Wombats eat mainly grasses and roots. 


Bandicoots are small furry marsupials. They have a long, pointed snout, humped back, and a thin tail. Bandicoots live in burrows that they dig using their strengths. clawed feet. Their pouch faces backward. so soil and dirt do not enter their pouch when they dig burrows. Bandicoot is a nocturnal creature, they are active only at night. 


Wallabies are small to medium-sized kangaroo-like marsupials. They have soft, woolly fur that is gray, brown, red, or black in color. Wallabies have powerful hind legs and a large, strong tail. They are herbivores and feed on grass, leaves, roots, and plants. Wallabies hop and jump using their powerful legs 


Kangaroos are the largest marsupial mammals. A kangaroo has Z-shaped back legs that help it to hop easily. Its long tail balances the body while hopping. Kangaroos can hop up to three meters in the forward direction at the speed of 60 km/h.


The opossum is the only living marsupial in North America. It has gray to black fur. The opossum has a pink and pointed nose and black ears. It has a long, hairless tail. Opossum is a slow-moving animal. 

What is National Park?

A National Park is a vast protected territory. The natural conditions in a national park are ideal for wildlife to exist in their natural habitat. National parks preserve and develop wildlife and their habitats. There are about 6,000 national parks and protected areas across the world.

Yellow-stone National Park

The world's first national park is Yellow Stone National Park, established in 1872. It is located mostly in the American states of Wyoming and extends into Montana and Idaho. The park covers an area of 8,983 square kilometers, which includes lakes, canyons, rivers, and mountain ranges. Animals that live in the park include the grey wolf, lynx, grizzly bear, bison, black bear, elk, moose, mule deer, mountain goat, pronghorn, bighorn sheep, and mountain lion.

Kruger National Park

Kruger National Park is one of the largest national parks in the world. It is situated in northeast South Africa and covers an area of about 19,000 square kilometers. The park is so large that it is divided into six ecosystems. Kruger is approximately 360 kilometers long and its widest point is 90 kilometers wide. The park has over 500 species of birds and about 150 species of mammals including African buffalo, black rhinoceros, giraffe, cheetah, and hippopotamus.

Iguaçu National Park

Iguaçu National Park is Brazil's best-known national park and a UNESCO World Heritage site. It is famous for its waterfall and wildlife, especially rare and endangered species of birds. Iguaçu is home to five kinds of forests and bio-systems all in the same place.

Amboseli National Park Amboseli National Park is one of the world's most famous national parks. It covers an area of 392 square kilometers in the Rift Valley Province of Kenya, in Africa. Amboseli is famous for being the best place in Africa to observe wild elephants closely.

Ranthambore National Park and Tiger Reserve

One of the world's finest tiger reserves is Ranthambore National Park in India. The park is famous for its royal Bengal tigers. Other animals that live in the park include cats, leopards, chinkaras, chitals, sambars, striped hyenas, squirrels, sloth bears, deer, foxes, Indian flying foxes, mole rats, mongoose lizards, monitor lizards, crocodiles, vipers, Indian pythons, tortoises. turtles, and cobras.

Los Glaciares National Park

Los Glaciares National Park is the second-largest national park in Argentina and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Los Glaciares was created in 1937 and covers an area of about 4,500 square kilometers. About a third of Los Glaciares is covered with ice.

Special Teeth

Rodents have a pair of broad. deep-rooted teeth are known as incisors. These are attached in both jaws and grow continuously throughout life. The incisors are well suited for gnawing the food. Rodents have back teeth consisting of molars and premolars, which they use for chewing. They do not have canine teeth.

Guinea Pig

Guinea pigs are small rodents with stout bodies. They are about 20 to 40 centimeters long and weigh about 700 to 1,200 grams. Guinea pigs make a variety of sounds including wheeking, bubbling, rumbling, chirping, and chattering. Guinea pigs have short round ears and no tails. 

Arctic Hare

Arctic hares have a thick, white fur coat that changes into brown color in summer and remains white in winter. They have short ears with black tips. Arctic hares live in the tundra and in rocky mountainous areas. They are nocturnal and eat woody plants, mosses, and lichens. Arctic hares can run at a speed of 60km/h.

Cottontail Rabbit

Cottontail rabbits are named for their tails, which are small tuft of white fur. They range in color from reddish-brown to gray. Cottontail rabbits have big eyes, long ears and large hind legs, and feet. Cottontail rabbits are found throughout North and South America.

Kangaroo Rat

Kangaroo rats have long hind legs and can hop like kangaroos. They have storage pouches outside of their cheeks. They have small, hairless ears. They are nocturnal rodents and feed at night on seeds, fruits, vegetation, and insects. Kangaroo rats can survive for long periods without water. Rats can jump up 91cm (3 feet), while mice can jump up 30cm (1 foot). 


Gerbils are also known as desert rats or sand rats. They are burrowing rodents with a tail, which is 24 centimeters long. They live together in colonies in tunnels. Gerbils are found in dry, sandy areas and grasslands of western Asia and Africa. Gerbils have a mouse-like face and long hind legs, which help them to leap like kangaroo rats. 

Flying Squirrel

A flying squirrel is a small, furry squirrel. It glides from tree to tree with the help of a blanket-like membrane of furry skin that extends from the wrist to the ankle. The flying squirrel can glide anywhere from a few meters to about 457 meters. The flying squirrel is a nocturnal rodent, which eats nuts, seeds, fruits, raw meat, and young meats. 

Komodo Dragon

Komodo dragons, the largest lizards, belong to the group of monitor lizards. They weigh more than 130 kilograms. A komodo dragon can eat 80 percent of its body weight in a single meal. Komodo dragons are mainly found in Africa, India, and Australia. About 3,000 to 5,000 komodo dragons live in the islands of Komodo, Rinca, and other surrounding islands. Komodo dragons can run at the speed of 18km/h.

Tortoise Species

Galapagos giant tortoise and Aldabra giant tortoise are the two largest species of tortoise living in the Islands of Galapagos and Al bra. Both the species are about 2 meters in length, and weigh up to 250 kilograms. Galapagos Tortoise can live for about 100 years or more. 

Nile Crocodile

Nile crocodiles are about 6 meters in length and weigh more than 700 kilograms, and thus are Africa's largest crocodiles. Though Nile crocodiles are known as vicious man-eaters and fearsome predators, they prove to be very caring parents. Both father and mother crocodiles guard their eggs in the nest until they hatch in comparison to other reptiles, which lay their eggs and leave them. Nile crocodiles feed on fish, zebras, porcupines, birds, and other crocodiles. 


Tuataras are ancient reptiles that look like lizards. They belonged to a large group of reptiles that lived at the same time as dinosaurs. Tuataras were the only survivors of this group. They are also sometimes known as 'living fossils as they have changed very little since their origin. Male tuataras are larger than female tuataras. Armadillo lizard rolls itself into a ball to protect its soft belly making itself an expert defender. 

American Alligator

American Alligators are extremely well-adapted swimmers. Their armored bodies, powerful jaws, and muscular tails make them intimidating predators. American Alligators have managed to save themselves from extinction and have even reached a stable conservation status and are thriving now. American alligators mainly reside in freshwater lakes, swamps, rivers, and marshes of the South-Eastern United States. 

Poisonous Snakes

Many snakes are poisonous or venomous, while others are non-poisonous. Poisonous or venomous snakes produce poison or venom from their specialized teeth known as fangs. They use this venom for self-defense and hunt prey. To kill their prey, snakes spew venom on them. Cobras, sea snakes, and rattlesnakes are some of the venomous snakes found in the United States of America. King cobra is the only snake in the world, which builds a nest for its eggs. 

Great Constrictors

Boas are great constrictors. These non-poisonous snakes kill their prey by constriction. Boas have special hooked teeth through which they grab prey and then wrap their 4-meter-long body around the victim, sq ing it until it suffocates. Birds. insects and frogs are common prey of boas. Anaconda is a boa found in the swamps of the tropical forests of South America. Anacondas eat amphibians, caiman, birds, and turtles.  

Animal Kingdom Groups

The animal kingdom is divided into two broad groups called vertebrates and invertebrates. Vertebrates are animals with backbones, while invertebrates do not have backbones.


Mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds, and fish are examples of vertebrates.


Insects, crustaceans, arachnids, sponges, jellyfish, flatworms, roundworms, segmented worms, mollusks, and starfish are examples of invertebrates. 


Warm-blooded animals can generate their own body heat. This means that they can maintain a constant body temperature in any kind of environment. Birds and mammals are warm-blooded animals.


Cold-blooded animals cannot generate their own body heat. Their body temperature rises or falls with the temperature of the surrounding environment. Fish and reptiles are cold-blooded animals. Amphibians are cold-blooded animals and the frogs is an amphibian. 


The word "carnivore" is derived from the Latin words caro meaning "flesh" and vorare meaning "to swallow." Carnivores are animals that eat the flesh of other animals. Common carnivores include lions, tigers, cheetahs. leopards, polar bears, frogs, toads. spiders, scorpions, lizards, snakes, hawks, eagles, falcons, and owls.


The word "herbivore" is derived from the Latin words herba meaning "vegetation" and vorare meaning "to swallow." Herbivores are animals that eat mainly plants or parts of plants. Common herbivores include elephants, rhinoceroses, giraffes, zebras, pandas, kangaroos, kiwis and American beaver.


The word "omnivore" is derived from the Latin words omni meaning "all" and vorare meaning "to swallow." Omnivores are animals that eat both plants and animals. Common omnivores include brown bears, polar bears, chimpanzees, crows, pigs, chipmunks, mice, rats, squirrels, magpies, ravens, rooks, and some lizards and turtles.

Animal Kingdom

The animal kingdom is one of the five groups of living things. The scientific name of the animal kingdom is Animalia. The science of classification of animals is called taxonomy. Around 800,000 species are there in the animal kingdom. A species is a group of animals with common characteristics and can interbreed to produce offspring.


The animal kingdom is divided into several groups called phyla. Phylum Chordata and Arthropoda are the most known phyla. Chordata includes animals with backbones, for example, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals. Arthropoda includes insects - the group with the largest number of species of spider and crustaceans.

Other Classification Groups

Phyla are divided into even smaller groups called classes. Aves (birds), Reptilia (reptiles), Amphibia (amphibians), and Mammalia (mammals) are classes of Phylum Chordata. Classes then divide into orders, such as Mammalia is divided into orders Rodentia, Primates, Insectivora, Carnivora, etc. Orders are then divided into families, such as Carnivora is divided into Felidae (cats). Canidae (dogs), Ursidae (bears), etc. Families further divide into genus and genus is broken down into species.


  • Phylum - Chordata
  • Class - Mammalia
  • Order - Carnivore
  • Family - Felidate
  • Genus - Acinonyx
  • Species - Justus

Defensive Approach

Animals are under constant threat of being attacked or eaten away by larger animals. They have special physical adaptations that help in their safe survival. They also adopt various defensive approaches to protect themselves from being hurt, killed, or eaten. Animals defend themselves by the process of camouflage, hibernation, chemical combat, etc.


Camouflage is the ability of animals to blend in with their surroundings in order to escape attack by predators. Animals like chameleon, leopard, and zebra have markings or coloration that merges with their surroundings. For example, the white fur of Polar bears blends into the white snow of the Arctic. 

A camouflaged animal might look like a leaf, a twig of a rock. 

Horns and Antlers

Some animals have pointed, bony projections on their head, known as horns or antlers, which they use to fight off predators. These horns are used as weapons of defense to protect themselves when attacked. Animals lock their horns with the competitor's horns or pierce their skin.


Many animals and birds make loud, hoarse calls to express danger or distress. For example, frogs make distress calls when bitten by a predator. When llamas are attacked by predators they make a loud, high-pitched, rhythmic sound for seeking help and warning other llamas.

Chemical Combat

Some animals spray toxic chemicals, which they generate from a specific body organ, to prevent themselves from predators. Some animals like ants, beetles, etc. generate a chemical, known as a pheromone, to warn off predators.

Physical Adaptations

Some animals efficiently use their physical features, like feet and tail, for defense. Animals, such as rabbits, elephants, and kangaroos have large, powerful feet that they use to kick or stomp on their enemies. The kangaroo also uses its tail for defense. Strong and powerful, a kangaroo's tail is primarily used for balance, but can also be swung to knock an opponent off balance.


Hibernation is a sleep-like state, which many mammals, like mice and bears, undergo during winter. Dormancy allows an animal to survive in harsh conditions when the weather is very cold and there is a scarcity of food. During hibernation, the animal's body temperature drops, and its rate of breathing slows down.

Hibernating animals usually retreat to a den, a burrow, or a hollow log for protection and shelter. 


Migration is the seasonal movement of birds or animals from one place to another. Most birds migrate during winter when food becomes scarce. They fly away thousands of kilometers across mountains and vast water bodies in search of a warmer climate, food, water, and shelter.

Most migratory birds travel in flocks forming spectacular patterns and loops as they fly. 

What is a biome?

A biome is a biogeographic region with distinctive plants and animals that interact with each other. All plants and animals are adapted to the particular climate and soil of the biome. Tundra, taiga, desert, tropical rainforest, grasslands, and aquatic are major biomes of the world.


About one-third of the earth is covered with deserts. These dry and barren areas receive very little or no rainfall. The severe and harsh conditions of deserts have made the desert animals develop many adaptations to bear extreme hot and cold weather, and survive on little or no water. Insects, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and large animals like foxes, camels, and kangaroo live in deserts.

Snakes and rats remain in their burrows during the day to avoid scorching heat and come out only at night in the desert. 

Aquatic Biome

The aquatic biome is divided into marine and freshwater biomes. Seas and oceans cover around 75 percent of the earth's surface. They are home to the smallest animals, like planktons, and the largest animals, such as sharks, octopuses, whales, and dolphins. Freshwater biomes provide habitat to fish, frogs, birds, snakes, and turtles.

Grey whales are found in the shallow coastal waters of the East Northern Pacific. 


The Tundra is the coldest biome in the world surrounding the North Pole. It is also known as the Arctic tundra. The minimum temperature of the tundra drops to - 40°C and the average temperature remains 0°C. Arctic fox, Arctic hare, polar bear, caribou are Arctic tundra animals.

Winters are extremely cold and dark with no sunlight for almost 10 months in Tundra.

Tropical Rainforest

Tropical Rainforests are located around. the earth's equator. These thick, dense evergreen forests have a hot climate and receive high rainfall. The largest number of animal species is found in tropical rainforests ranging from birds, reptiles, wild cats, primates to invertebrates, such as insects and spiders.

Tropical rainforests are at great risk due to mankind. Among the tropical rainforest found in South America, the African Congo, South East Asia, India, Australia, and Brazil, the Amazon rainforest of South America is the largest rainforest. 


Taiga biome is the world's largest biome. It is covered with needle-leaf trees, such as coniferous trees. Taiga biome is spread from the tundra to the areas of North America, Europe, and Asia. Summers are warm and humid, while winters are very cold with occasional snowfall. It is home to various animals like lynx, wolverine, bobcat, mink, snowshoe rabbit, and ermines.

Bobcat is native to North America and is named for its short, bobbed tail. 


Grasslands cover almost one-fourth of the earth's area. They have grass or grass-like plants and a few trees covered all over. Major grasslands of the world are the prairies of North America, the pampas of South America, the of Africa, the steppes of Eurasia, and the savannas of Africa, South America, and Australia.

Grasslands are found in all continents except Antarctica. 

What are worms?

Worms are small, invertebrates having soft and slender bodies. Worms do not have legs rather they have bristles and special muscles to move ahead. Most worms have elongated bodies like snakes. Worms have five hearts, which pump blood through the blood vessels. 

Parasites and Decomposers

Some worms are parasitic, which live in the intestinal tracts or liver of some animals or humans. Others are decomposers, which act in the breaking down of materials and soil and release substances that can be used by other members of the ecosystem.


Flatworms are found under rotten vegetation or wood in gardens or dustbins. There are more than 20,000 species of flatworms. They have a mucus layer that prevents them from drying out and helps them in movement. Flatworms feed on slugs and earthworms. Bedford's Flatworm is a free living flatworm. 

Segmented Worms

Segmented Worms have bodies divided into sections called segments. When fully developed, they have about 120-170 segments. Segmented worms move by contracting their segments, which have hair called Setae. Setae help the worms get a grip on the soil. Segmented worms are one of the first creatures to be the most developed.


Roundworms are mostly microscopic that grow only to a size of I millimeter. There are more than 10,000 known species of roundworms. Roundworms can be parasites or herbivores. Herbivorous roundworms eat plant material and algae.

Roundworms are common in tropical countries. 


Earthworms are important creatures for farmers and gardeners. They eat up the decayed leaves and other organic matter from the soil, where they make their burrows. They excrete this mineral-rich waste in the topsoil making it nutrient-rich and fertile. Earthworms are segmented worms. 


Worms have both male and female organs and are thus called hermaphrodites. They exchange sperms through the swollen area near their head and form an egg capsule. Baby worms hatch from the egg cocoons that are smaller than a grain of rice.


Leeches are segmented worms. Leeches do not hide under the soil-like earthworms; instead, they can be found roaming around finding for human beings or any animal to suck the blood out of them. Some leeches are also fond of sucking juices out of snails and other worms. When they do not find them, they can also feed on fish, frogs, turtles, or birds. Leeches can be freshwater, terrestrial, or marine. 

What are Gills?

The breathing organs of fish are called the gills. The gills are located on the side of the head and are protected by the gill cover called 'opercle' or 'operculum'. The gills have a large space area for gas exchange the just like the lungs have in human beings. With the help of gills, fish absorb oxygen and give off carbon dioxide.

Smallest Fish

The paedocypris is the smallest fish in the world. The Paedocypris is only 7.9 millimeters long. It has the appearance of a larva and lives in dark tea-colored waters. The fish was discovered in the swamps of Sumatra, Indonesia in 2005.


Piranhas are called cruel killers because of their ferocious behavior. They have razor-sharp, triangle-shaped teeth, which enable them to chop their prey into bits. They eat other fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals.


Parrotfish are most popular for their bright colors. They range in colors from blue, green, yellow and others. They have fused beaks with a smooth surface, which resembles the beak of a parrot. Their diet mainly consists of water plants and algae, which they bite from coral reefs with their parrot-like beaks.

Parrotfish can change their gender and color throughout their lives.

Cucumber Beetles

Cucumber Beetles have an oval-shaped, bright yellowish-green body. They have beaded antennae that are about 2 millimeters long.

The cucumber beetle feeds on cucumber and melon vines. 

Bumble Bees

Bumble Bees are large, hairy bees that have a round, furry bodies. Bumblebees live in colonies that are headed by a queen and comprise of many female workers and male drones. Bumblebees are important pollinators of many plants. Both queens and workers collect pollen and transport them back to the colony in pollen baskets on their hind legs.

Bumblebees are generally black and yellow in color. 


Grasshoppers are insects that can hop, walk and fly using their three pairs of legs. Grasshoppers have two pairs of wings that differ in shape, structure, and function. The front pair is hard, leathery, and narrow. The hind wings are large, membranous, and fan-shaped. The hind pair of wings play a greater role in flight as compared to the front pair.

At the very young stage, the grasshopper has no wings. 


Butterflies are colorful flying insects. Their body is covered with tiny sensory hair. They have two pairs of large, scaly wings that are brightly colored and have beautiful patterns and designs. Butterflies feed on nectar.


Insects are small, six-legged animals, All insects have a hard exoskeleton that protects their internal organs. Their body has three parts - head, thorax, and abdomen. They breathe through holes called spiracles.

Physical Features

Insects are the only invertebrates that can fly. Their wings not only serve as flight organs but also as protective covers. Insects have a pair of compound eyes and antennae, which they use to sense the world around them. Insects hatch from eggs.


Ants are found all over the world. Ants have a large head that has a pair of strong jaws. Ants can lift 20 times their own body weight. They are social insects and live in communities comprising of worker ants headed by a queen ant.


Moths have feather-like antennae. Moths can see ultra-violet light and can find their way in the dark using moon and starlight. They have a long tongue called a proboscis, which is curled inside their mouth. The tongue uncurls for feeding and is used as a drinking straw. Moths are positively phototactic, that is, they are attracted to light.

Great White Shark

The great white sharks are the world's largest predatory fish. They are about 4.5 meters long and weigh about 2,268 kilograms. They have 3,000 triangular teeth, which help them to eat sea lions, small-toothed whales, sea turtles, and carrion. Great white sharks get their name from their white underbellies. They have strong and powerful tails, which help them to propel through the water at speeds of up to 24 km/h.

Great white sharks have such a great sense of smell that they can even sense a tiny amount of blood in the water up to 5 kilometers away. 


Pufferfish are the world's second most poisonous vertebrates. The skin and some internal organs of pufferfish are highly toxic. Some species of pufferfish even have spines on their bodies. Pufferfish are also known as 'blowfish' because they can inflate their bodies. They pump water or air into the special sacs, which gives them a balloon-like appearance. They use their puffed bodies to warn their enemies.

There are more than 120 species of pufferfish throughout the world. 


The stonefish is the most venomous fish in the world. It has poisonous spikes on its back and uses the spikes only in self-defense. It is brownish in color and often looks like a rock. It eats small sea creatures, such as small fish, shrimp, and other crustaceans. The stonefish inhabits the rocky bottoms of tropical waters.

The poison of stonefish 

Mallard Duck

The Mallard Duck is a large dabbling wild duck, found in the wild of the USA. Male mallards have green heads, rusty chests,s and gray bodies, while female mallards are brown colored. Mallards are known for their loud series of quacks. Males make a softer, rasping "rab" sound. They grunt and whistle during display. During the flight, they are also capable of producing whistling sounds with their wings. Mallard Ducks can grow to about 65 centimeters in length and weigh up to 1.4 kilograms. 

Bald Eagle

The Bald eagle is one of the largest birds of prey or raptors. The bald eagle is named so because its entire body is covered with brown feathers except for the head that is covered with white feathers. The white feathers on its head give it a bald-like appearance. Bald eagles look spectacular with their long, broad wings held flat when they soar high up in the air. The bald eagle has a large, hooked bill and sharp talons. 

Great Blue Heron

The Great Blue Heron is the largest and most widespread heron in North America. This heron has long legs, a long, "S"-shaped neck, and a long, thick bill. The Great blue herons usually nest and roost in flocks. Their nesting places are called heronries. Their nests consist of loose, crude masses of sticks, grass, and twigs. They build nests on treetops or in bushes. The great blue heron has shaggy feathers on its neck and back.


The Kiwi is a small, flightless bird native to New Zealand. Kiwis have no tail and have tiny wings, which are hard of any practical use. Kiwis have long, slender, flexible bills that are unique as they have. nostrils at the lower end. They use their excellent sense of smell and sniff out worms and insects using their bills. Kiwis are alert creatures and have sharp, three-toed feet, which enable them to kick and slash an enemy. 


The Kingfisher is a common waterside bird often seen plunging into the water to catch fish. They have a large, thick bill and stubby tails. They use their bill and feet to dig burrows near river banks or in tree cavities where they live and lay eggs. Kingfishers are brightly colored birds with large heads and shaggy crests. 


The Ostrich is the largest and heaviest bird. It is a flightless bird. Though it can not fly, it can cover great distances by walking on its long, thick, and powerful legs. An ostrich's eye, which measures about 5 centimeters, is the largest eye among all land animals. Ostriches live in small herds that usually contain less than a dozen birds. 

Blue Jay

The Blue jay is a large songbird. It is a very vocal bird and is known for making a large variety of calls. Its most frequent call is a harsh "jeer." The Blue Jay produces clear-whistled notes and gurgling sounds. The blue jay is also fond of mimicking the calls of hawks.

Goliath Frog

The Goliath frog is the world's largest frog. It is about 20 to 32 centimeters long and weighs about 2.7 to 3.3 kilograms. Goliath frogs are found in rainforests, rivers, and waterfalls of Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea in western Africa. Goliath frogs can jump up to a distance of 3 meters of a time. 

Venezuela Skunk Frog

Venezuela's skunk frog is the worst-smelling frog. It releases a bad-smelling chemical, which is identical to the odor of a skunk. The chemical helps the frog to warn off its predators. The Venezuela skunk frog was discovered in 1991.

Largest Toad

The world's largest toad is the South American marine toad. It is 23 centimeters long and weighs up to 1.2 kilograms. The South American marine toad is usually brown with dry and bumpy skin. It is the only known amphibian, which eats plant matter and carrion.

Red-Spotted Newt

The red-spotted newt is a brightly colored newt. It has two rows of red spots, which have black borders. The bright color helps it to warn off its predators. It is also known as the green water lizard.

Difference between Frog and Toad

Frogs have long legs for leaping whereas toads have shorter legs for quick, short hops. The skin of frogs is smooth and moist whereas toads have a dry skin, with wart-like bumps. Frogs secrete a toxic chemical from their skin while toads have poison sacs located behind their eyes to protect them from their enemies.

Smallest Salamander

Arboreal minute salamander (Thorius arboreus) is the smallest salamander. It has a body length of about 1.7 centimeters. It has a very slender body with a wide head. The arboreal minute salamander is found in Mexico.

Smallest Salamander

Arboreal minute salamander (Thorius arboreus) is the smallest salamander. It has a body length of about 1.7 centimeters. It has a very slender body with a wide head. The arboreal minute salamander is found in Mexico.

Singing Frogs

Most male frogs are singing frogs. They have a louder voice than the females. Male frogs grunt and croak to attract the female frogs. They use their voice also as territorial calls to warn other male frogs.

Spotted salamanders spend most of their lives under rocks or logs or in the burrows of other forest animals.

Most commonly studied Animal Phyla

  • Porifera (sponges)
  • Cnidaria (jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones, Portuguese men-of-war, and corals)
  • Platyhelminthes (flatworms, including planaria, flukes, and tapeworms) 
  • Nematoda (roundworms, including rotifers and nematodes)
  • Annelida (segmented worms, including earthworms, leeches, and marine worms)
  • Mollusca (mollusks, including bivalves, snails and slugs, and octopuses and squids)
  • Echinodermata (sea stars, sea cucumbers, sand dollars, and sea urchins)
  • Arthropods (arachnids, crustaceans, millipedes, centipedes, and insects) 
  • Chordata (animals with nerve chords - this group includes the vertebrates including birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and mammals)

Do you know?

  • Grizzly bear gets its name from the greyish or grizzled tips of its fur.
  • Vanoise national park, created in 1963 is a French National Park in the alps. 
  • Arusha National Park is one of the most beautiful wilderness areas located in Tanzania. 
  • The wild boar is an omnivorous animal found in Ranthambore National Park. 
  • Tiger Salamander, a reptile is the largest land-dwelling salamander on Earth. 
  • Starfish have no brain and no blood. 
  • Scavengers are animals that feed on dead or decaying animal or plant matter. Vultures, burying beetles, blowflies, yellow-jacket wasp, and raccoons are scavengers. 
  • Cheetahs mainly prey on small antelopes and sometimes birds and small mammals. 
  • Bamboo is the favorite food of pandas. 
  • Chimpanzees eat fruits, leaves stems, and insects. 
  • Vultures feed on carrion. 
  • Snails are mollusks
  • Atlantic oval squids display rainbow colors to communicate with each other
  • Centipedes have one pair of legs in each segment of the body
  • The genus name of an animal is capitalized, while the species name is kept in lower case, for example, Homo Sapiens.
  • Sea urchins have a spiny shell
  • Reindeer is an artic deer with large antlers
  • Giraffes have small horns or knobs called assicones, above their eyes that protect their head from injury.
  • Grazing in herds is another defensive technique that some animals adapt. When attacked by a predator, the animals escape by scattering in different directions confusing the predator.
  • Many amphibians produce skin toxins. For example, the poisonous arrow frog secretes a toxin from tiny pores of its skin. 
  • The lionfish is a brightly colored, venomous fish found in reefs and rocky crevices in shallow waters.
  • The clownfish get its name from its distinctive black and white markings. It has a beneficial relationship with the sea anemone.
  • The Hawkmoth (Sphinx) is the world's fastest flying insect that flies at a speed of over 50 km/h. 
  • Praying mantis are so named because they hold up the forepart of their body and front legs that suggests the position of prayer. 
  • A bird's heart beats 400 times per minute, while they are at rest. When they are flying, their heart can beat up to 1000 bears per minute.
  • Fowler toads are grey-colored toads with large brown blotches on the back, each with three or more rusty wars. 
  • Green Salamanders have square
  • Striped newt is a small newt found in northern Florida and southeastern Georgia.
  • Arboreal salamander is the smallest salamander found in Mexico. 
  • Scientists believe that Golden toads got extinct due to climate changes. 
  • Spotted salamanders spend most of their lives under rocks or logs or in the burrows 
  • South American marine toads range from south Texas and South Sonora through the Amazon Basin in South America.
Known As
  • Male rats - Bucks
  • Female rats - Does
  • Baby rats - Kittens
  • Group of rats - Mischief
Number of species estimated

Invertebrates: 97% of all known species
  • Sponges: 10,000 species
  • Cnidarians: 8,000-9,000 species
  • Mollusks: 100,000 species Platyhelminths: 13,000 species
  • Nematodes: 20,000+ species
  • Annelida: 12,000 species
  • Crustaceans: 40,000 species
  • Insects: 1-30 million+ species
  • Arachnids: 75,500 species
  • Vertebrates: 3% of all
known species
  • Reptiles: 7,984 species 
  • Amphibians: 5,400 species 
  • Birds: 9,000-10,000 species
  • Mammals: 4,475-5,000 species 
  • Ray-Finned Fishes: 23,500 species

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